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The Top Five Ways Jewish Law Justifies Killing Civilians; #4: TERRORISM!

Please make sure to read my disclaimer: Why Religious Zionism, Not Judaism, Is The Problem.

Read the Introduction: Does Jewish Law Justify Killing Civilians?

Previous: #3 Promoting Ethnic Cleansing (II)

Israeli professor and human rights activist Israel Shahak wrote in the preface of his book Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel (co-authored with Norton Mezvinsky):

Virtually identified with Arab terrorism, Islamic fundamentalism is anathema throughout the non-Muslim world.  Virtually identified with ignorance, superstition, intolerance and racism, Christian fundamentalism is anathema to the cultural and intellectual elite in the United States.  The recent significant increase in its number of adherents, combined with its widening political influence, nevertheless, make Christian fundamentalism a real threat to democracy in the United States.  Although possessing all the important social scientific properties of Islamic and Christian fundamentalism, Jewish fundamentalism is practically unknown outside of Israel and certain sections of a few other places.  When its existence is acknowledged, its significance is minimized or limited to arcane religious practices and quaint middle European dress, most often by those same non-Israeli elite commentators who see so uncompromisingly the evils inherent in Jewish fundamentalism’s Islamic and/or Christian cousins.

As students of contemporary society and as Jews, one Israeli, one American, with personal commitments and attachments to the Middle East, we cannot help seeing Jewish fundamentalism in Israel as a major obstacle to peace in the region.  Nor can we help being dismayed by the dismissal of the perniciousness of Jewish fundamentalism to peace and its victims by those who are otherwise knowledgeable and astute and so quick to point out the violence inherent in other fundamentalist approaches to existence.

Pro-Israeli apologists are certainly “quick to point out the violence inherent in” Radical Islam while simultaneously dismissing “the perniciousness of Jewish fundamentalism to peace.”  MEMRI is one such group: this Israeli propaganda machine churns out cherry-picked translations from Arabic texts, in an attempt to magnify the threat of Radical Islam.  Meanwhile, these same sorts of pro-Israeli elements levy the charge of “Self-Hating Jew” and “Anti-Semitism” against all who would point out similar radicalism in the Israeli/Jewish community.  Prof. Shahak was himself the victim of such slurs (and now I have been accused of this as well).

We are constantly barraged by screeds warning us how inherently violent Sharia is–and how Islam supposedly compels its adherents to commit acts of terrorism–yet few would be comfortable with holding Judaism to the same standard we do Islam.  Certainly, Halakha (Jewish law)–as understood by Orthodox Judaism in Israel (the only form of Judaism recognized by the Jewish state)–permits targeting and killing civilians, collective punishment, and ethnic cleansing.  It also permits terrorism against civilian populations.  Rabbi Michael J. Broyde writes on pp.23-24 of War and Peace in the Jewish Tradition:

Air warfare greatly expands the “kill zone” of combat and (at least in our current state of technology) tends to inevitably result in the death of civilians.  The tactical aims of air warfare appear to be fourfold: [1] to destroy specific enemy military targets, [2] to destroy the economic base of the enemy’s war-making capacity, [3] to randomly terrorize civilian populations, and [4] to retaliate for other atrocities by the enemy to one’s own home base and thus deter such conduct in the future by the enemy.

The first of these goals…is permissible…The same would appear would be true about the second…It would appear that the third goal is not legitimate absent the designation of “Compulsory” or “Obligatory” war.  The final goal…could perhaps provide some sort of justification for certain types of conduct in combat that would otherwise be prohibited.

In a future article, I will explain the different types of wars as understood in the Jewish tradition: for now, however, the reader ought to know that on p.14 Broyde quotes Maimonides that “a war to deliver Israel from an enemy who has attacked them” would constitute a Compulsory/Obligatory war.  This is nearly a unanimous opinion.  Prof. Arye Edrei writes in Divine Spirit and Physical Power:

[The Chief Rabbi of Israel, Shlomo] Goren[,] stated frequently in his writings that the contemporary wars of Israel meet the criterion of obligatory wars because their goal is to save Israel from the hands of an oppressor, and he categorized the Peace for Galilee War [1982 Lebanon War] as such a war.

Therefore, it is permitted under Halakha for Israel to “randomly terrorize [Arab] civilian populations.”  Notice also that the fourth “tactical aim,” permitted under Jewish law, also fits under terrorism: “to retaliate for other atrocities by the enemy to one’s own home base and thus deter such conduct in the future by the enemy.”  This is manifested in Israel’s policy of “massive retaliation,” which is a euphemism for state terrorism: the goal is to inflict so many Palestinian civilian casualties that it would serve as a deterrent to future terrorist attacks.

Professor Herbert Leventer of Yeshiva University legitimizes “terror bombing,” writing on p.75 of War and Peace in the Jewish Tradition:

If, in an emergency, you engage in the occasional assassination, terror (rather than mere strategic) bombing, killing of civilian shields–you do no wrong, and have no reason even to feel regret.

Adam Aptowitzer of B’nai Brith opined:

Terror is a tool, terror is a means to an end … When Israel uses terror to … destroy a home and convince people to be terrified of what the possible consequences are, I’d say that’s acceptable use to terrify someone.

The truth is that terror is an option to be used by states in order to prevent deaths of their own citizens and others. Acts that take place in Gaza and [the] West Bank, you might want to classify them as terrorists sponsored by the state. But when that is being done to prevent deaths, are we going to say that is wrong

(Note: To give credit where credit is due, I first came across this quote in Norman Finkelstein’s Beyond Chutzpah.)

Throughout its short history, Israel has terrorized the Palestinian population.  From 1948 when “the Hagana and other Jewish paramilitaries were terrorizing Palestinian civilians” (quote taken from p.56 of Prof. Sean F. McMahon’s The Discourse of Palestinian-Israeli Relations) to the recent 2008-2009 Israeli war on Gaza–described by the United Nations as an operation “designed to punish, humiliate and terrorize a civilian population”–state terrorism has been used by the Israelis very consistently.  (In the future, I will write a more detailed article documenting the systematic terrorism conducted by the state of Israel.)

Today, nearly half of Israeli Jews (46%) support “price tag” terrorism against Palestinians.  Price tag terrorism refers to “acts carried out against Palestinians in revenge of government actions harming the settler enterprise.”  These are characterized as “pogroms meted out by fanatical settlers against defenseless Palestinians,” and involves violence against civilians.  Price tag terror is conducted by “Israeli soldiers and settlers” who”rampag[e] through” Palestinian villages, meting out “retributive violence.”

These terror attacks include blowing up cars, vandalizing homes, beatings, and stabbings.  Just a few hours prior to writing this article, an article was published by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency that Palestinian cars were set aflame.  [Editor’s Note: This article was written a few weeks before it was published.  A few days before the article was published, however, a mosque in Northern Israel was burned down by Jewish extremists.] Mosques are a favorite target for “price tag terror,” which have been burned down.  All of this goes on “under the watch of the army and with the encouragement of state-funded religious nationalist rabbis.”  Not only do nearly half of Israeli Jews support price tag terrorism but “most traditional, national-religious and ultra-Orthodox Jews believe these actions are justified (55%, 70% and 71%, respectively).”

Former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, a terrorist himself, declared that “neither Jewish ethics nor Jewish tradition can disqualify terrorism as a means of combat.” (hat tip: NassirH)

*  *  *  *  *

In addition to specifically allowing “terror bombings” that target civilians, Jewish law permits “indiscriminate violence” against civilians during milhemet mitzvah (Obligatory war), which all of Israel’s current wars are considered.  As Mordechai Eliyahu, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, stated, “[there is] absolutely no moral prohibition against the indiscriminate killing of civilians.”

According to international law, there is no difference between intentionally targeting civilians and indiscriminately killing them.  Dr. Norman Finkelstein writes in the preface to Beyond Chutzpah:

One often hears that Hamas’s deliberate targeting of civilians cannot be compared to Israel’s “unintended” killing of them.  However human rights organizations report that Israel’s use of live ammunition is “indiscriminate” (HRW) and “on many occasions… deliberately targeted” civilians (Amnesty International), and accordingly conclude that the purported distinction between Hamas and Israeli violence “makes no difference” (B’Tselem). If Hamas were to declare after blowing up a crowded civilian bus that it had only meant to kill a military officer in the vehicle and not the other passengers, it would rightly be ridiculed. Yet how different is it when Israel drops a one-ton bomb on a densely populated Gaza neighborhood in order to liquidate a Hamas military commander and then declares that the fourteen civilian deaths were unintentional? In his authoritative study on the laws of war, Israeli legal scholar Yoram Dinstein observes:

…From the standpoint of LOIAC [Law of International Armed Conflict], there is no genuine difference between a premeditated attack against civilians (or civilian objects) and a reckless disregard of the principle of distinction: they are equally forbidden.

Even if, for argument’s sake, we assume that Israel’s attacks on civilians are unintentional and accordingly that the worst it can be accused of is “reckless disregard of the principle of distinction,” it is still the rankest hypocrisy to require of Hamas that it cease violent attacks yet not put a comparable requirement on Israel to cease what is “equally forbidden.”

I would argue, however, that a case could be made that Israel’s indiscriminate use of violence against civilian populations is actually worse, because far more civilians die in such attacks than from Hamas’s terrorist bombings.  To put it simply: a terrorist attack against a civilian bus limits the death and destruction to one bus, whereas “drop[ping] a one ton bomb on a densely populated neighborhood” results in the death and destruction of many buses in that neighborhood.

Yet, Israel’s defenders seek to justify and normalize indiscriminate violence against civilian populations.  Ted Belman, editor of Israpundit.com, argues:

Israel is free to employ ALL munitions, tactics, equipment and personnel in her arsenal to defend herself against the outlaw Hamas terrorist organization. Short of the intentional targeting and murder of truly uninvolved and innocent civilians, Israel can (and should) operate as freely as she desires to protect her territorial sovereignty and the lives of her citizens.

What could be clearer.

What could be clearer, indeed.  Belman argues that there is a “non-existent duty to avoid killing enemy civilians.”  So long as Israel does not “intentionally kill civilians,” it can use indiscriminate violence to kill as many civilians as it needs, “even in disproportionate numbers” on the order of “100 of them…[to] 2 of ours.”  Belman says: “To my mind that is moral.”  This is Israeli and Zionist morality.

The actual ratio is very similar: during the Gaza conflict, conservative estimates from the Israeli human rights group B’Tselem have it that 1,387 Palestinians were killed (of which at least 773 did not take part in the hostilities at all), whereas only 9 Israelis were killed (of which only 3 were civilians).  This is a ratio of more than 250 to 1.  Three civilians were killed by deadly Qassam and Grad rockets, and in response 773 civilians–who took no part in hostilities at all–were slaughtered.  This, according to the mind of Ted Belman, is “moral.”

To conclude, Jewish law permits–and Israel routinely commits–acts of violence specifically targeting civilians, which is in addition to the licence granted to wreak indiscriminate violence against civilian populations.  Why is it then that all we ever talk about all day long is how Islamic law is this and that?  Why do we constantly hear serious pundits pontificating about “what’s wrong with Islam” and how Islam needs to go through a reformation, and yet we never hear a peep out of anyone about Jewish law?  Why the skewed discourse?  What gives?

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  • Pingback: War in Judaism – an Overview « AGAINST "ISLAMIC" TERRORISM & ISLAMOPHOBIA()

  • Curly

    Hey Danios,
    I do enjoy to read your article.

  • rob

    “@Christian_Friend :You are neither a Christian nor a Friend but only a A WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING.”

    Made of Nylon or Christian Spider silk? lol

  • @Christian_Friend :You are neither a Christian nor a Friend but only a A WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING.

  • Adina

    I guess if you do the same thing but you’re Jewish in the U.S. , THEN, it is ok! http://www.forward.com/articles/2065/

  • betel

    @Sabriya

    I think that’s the whole point of the articles. Danios is highlighting Mr. Spencer’s line of action. Spencer claims that evil is an intrinsic property of Islam: with no parallelism in either Judaism or Christianity. In effect, all Danios has done is to switch from “Shari’ah” to “Halakha”. In no way does Danios enforce the idea that these issues are really representing Judaism. They are just renditions WITHIN the jewish community. As a Jew I recognize the problem with the framing of the Din by several (but not all) scholars. I think most muslims does this very same thing when for example critisizing the construal superiority claim, by so and so ‘alim. We’ve got the same issues in Judaism and we need to break free from this. Ijtihad to the people.

  • Al

    Wow I can’t wait until the next part of the series!

  • Christian-friend

    heh, can’t insult a fellow christian, can you, Milad? or is it that you’re a fool?

  • Ummer

    Someone should tell those Rabbis that that law has been abrogated.

  • @ Christian -friend :It is always wiser to NIP THE EVIL IN THE BUD.Also never hold a SNAKE FROM ITS TAIL.It is safer to crush its head to be safe.God Bless.

  • sabriyah

    Danios-my 2 cents: I understand why you’re writing these articles and I get the point, but it’s the same filth as what Spencer does. I don’t like reading it when he does it, and it takes a lot for me to make it through a whole Halakha article because of the same reason. Replace all the Jewish terminology with Islamic terminology and delete the paragraph at the end and all of these articles would be highlighted Raymond Ibrahim post on WND. Don’t stoop to their level.

  • Christian-friend

    @Milad, when you justify preemptive strikes against a certain group of people, you sound just like Stalin. Are you his ghost?

  • NassirH

    In the words of former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir “neither Jewish ethics nor Jewish tradition can disqualify terrorism as a means of combat.”

    http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n06/john-mearsheimer/the-israel-lobby

    It doesn’t take much to accurately guess the reaction of loons if a Muslim politician had said something similar about Islam. They would have a field day and rant and rave endlessly about the supposed evils of Islam.

  • Isa

    “Why is it then that all we ever talk about all day long is how Islamic law is this and that? Why do we constantly hear serious pundits pontificating about “what’s wrong with Islam” and how Islam needs to go through a reformation, and yet we never hear a peep out of anyone about Jewish law? Why the skewed discourse? What gives?”

    It’s not a popular answer, but I believe it is close to the truth – the Holocaust. Because of the Holocaust, and because Americans are reminded of its horrors constantly through films, documentaries, memorials, etc, we have been conditioned to feel great regret for the sufferings of the Jewish people during the war, as we should. But Zionists also use the Holocaust as a way to justify their own Holocaust against the Palestinians. So, whenever anybody criticizes Israel or Jewish fundamentalism, they just need to say the word, “Holocaust” and people get quiet. It’s like an unspoken agreement that since the Jewish people suffered so much under the Nazi Regime (as well as the pogroms in Russia beforehand), that they should not be criticized as much as other people.

    Zionists use that to their advantage by using their own potential ancestors’ suffering at the hands of the evil Nazi Regime, to justify torturing and killing Palestinians by comparing them to the Nazis! Then they shout, “Never Again!”, and remind fellow Jews that had they fought against the German Nazis, the Holocaust may not have happened. So they must fight the Palestinians with as much vigor and hatred as they have in them.

  • Géji

    “I noticed that especially in the blind Zionist rhetoric…they refer to Israel as ‘her’ and ‘she’.”

    Well, i guess they’re mimicking Americans. Americans too refer to America as a female.

  • Ismail
  • Nur Alia, it is a standard naming convention to name objects like countries, oceans, ships, aircraft etc with a she. This expends to some national figures and concepts, e.g. Britannia the national symbol of Britain or Russia calling itself ‘The Motherland’. So it is quite correct to call Israel ‘she’ in the nonnative. It’s odd because even ships and aircraft with ‘male’ names, e.g. the USS Barry, will be referred to as ‘she’ or ‘her’ pronoun as in ‘she steamed into port yesterday’. Most European originating languages do this (German oddly refers to Germany with a male pronoun) but I haven’t found any Asian languages that do since I’ve lived here.

    Anyway, Milad is clearly Mr Pork or at least a clone. They all go through the same boot camp and brainwashing anyway, doesn’t matter. You’re boring everyone matey, I’m not even going to bother giving you a response.

  • Nur Alia

    Question…

    Why do blind supporters of Israel refer to Israel as a female?

    I noticed that especially in the blind Zionist rhetoric…they refer to Israel as ‘her’ and ‘she’.

    I dont understand this.

  • The Muslims are basically un-princilpled Barbaric people.Look what the Egyptian Muslims have done to the un-armed Coptic Christians who were only protesting against the burning of their Churches.25 Innocent copts were crushed to death under the Army vehicles.These very Copts were criticising Israel for defending their citizens.Now they have seen the true face of Egyptian Muslims.These Muslim Arabs are COWARDS.They do not form an Army to confront the Israel Army but always try to stab in the back.Hence,If the terrorsts only intended to destroy the bus and not its Jewish occupents.Like wise Israel is justified in destroying the Arab buildings only and if the Arab occupants get killed then so be it.As you sow,so shall you reap.If you sow winds,you will definitely reap whirl-winds.Israel is a tiny state and it has every right to protect its citizens at ever price,even if the Muslim Arabs get EVAPORATED,one should feel no remorse for that.They can always reproduce more through BED-ROOM JIHAD.

  • Daniel

    Keep up the good work, Danios. It’s an ugly truth that many don’t want to hear. We want to believe that we and our allies are as pure as the angels, and that our enemies are devils incarnate. The truth is, neither we or our enemies are wholly good or wholly evil…and Justice demands that we judge ALL by the same standard, including–and especially–ourselves.

  • mindy1

    Interesting and thought provoking articles, I wish I had an easy solution

  • Faisal Rathor

    @Danios,

    Excellent Comparison…

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