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Ramadan: A centuries-old American tradition


Ramadan: A centuries-old American tradition

by Khaled Beydoun (AlJazeera English)

This weekend marks the beginning of Ramadan. Nearly one-fourth of the world will observe the annual fast and eight million Muslims in the United States will abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset during the holy month. A gruelling task at any time of the year, Ramadan this year will be especially daunting during the long and hot summer days.

Islam in America is rapidly expanding. It is the fastest-growing religion in the nation, and the second most practiced faith in twenty states. These demographic shifts prompted a prominent Los Angeles-based imam to comment, “Ramadan is a new American tradition.” The cleric’s forward-looking pronouncement marks Islam’s recent arrival in the US. However, this statement reveals a pathology afflicting a lot of Muslim Americans today – an inability to look back and embrace the opening chapters of Muslim American history written by enslaved African Muslims.

Social scientists estimate that 15 to 30 percent, or, “[a]s many as 600,000 to 1.2 million slaves” in antebellum America were Muslims. 46 percent of the slaves in the antebellum South were kidnapped from Africa’s western regions, which boasted “significant numbers of Muslims”.

These enslaved Muslims strove to meet the demands of their faith, most notably the Ramadan fast, prayers, and community meals, in the face of comprehensive slave codes that linked religious activity to insubordination and rebellion. Marking Ramadan as a “new American tradition” not only overlooks the holy month observed by enslaved Muslims many years ago, but also perpetuates their erasure from Muslim-American history.

Between Sunnah and slave codes

Although the Quran “[a]llows a believer to abstain from fasting if he or she is far from home or involved in strenuous work,” many enslaved Muslims demonstrated transcendent piety by choosing to fast while bonded. In addition to abstaining from food and drink, enslaved Muslims held holy month prayers in slave quarters, and put together iftars – meals at sundown to break the fast – that brought observing Muslims together. These prayers and iftars violated slave codes restricting assembly of any kind.

For instance, the Virginia Slave Code of 1723 considered the assembly of five slaves as an “unlawful and tumultuous meeting”, convened to plot rebellion attempts. Every state in the south codified similar laws barring slave assemblages, which disparately impacted enslaved African Muslims observing the Holy Month.

Therefore, practicing Islam and observing Ramadan and its fundamental rituals, for enslaved Muslims in antebellum America, necessitated the violation of slave codes. This exposed them to barbaric punishment, injury, and oftentimes, even death. However, the courage to observe the holy month while bonded, and in the face of grave risk, highlights the supreme piety of many enslaved Muslims.

Ramadan was widely observed by enslaved Muslims. Yet, this history is largely ignored by Muslim American leaders and laypeople alike – and erased from the modern Muslim American narrative.

Rewriting the history of Ramadan in the US

Muslim America was almost entirely black during the antebellum Era. Today, it stands as the most diverse Muslim community in the world. Today African Americans comprise a significant part of the communityalong with Muslims of South Asian and Arab descent. Latin Americans are a rapidly growing demographic in the community, ensuring that Muslims in America are a microcosm of their home nation’s overall multiculturalism.

In the US today, Ramadan dinner tables are sure to include staple Arab or Pakistani dishes. Yet, many Muslim Americans will break the fast with tortas and tamales, halal meatloaf and greens. Muslim diversity in the US has reshaped Ramadan into a multicultural American tradition. The breadth of Muslim America’s racial and cultural diversity today is unprecedented, making this year’s Ramadan – and the Ramadans to follow – new in terms of how transcultural and multiracial the tradition has become.

This Muslim American multiculturalism comes with many challenges: Namely, intra-racism, Arab supremacy, and anti-black racism prevents cohesion inside and outside of American mosques. These deplorable trends perpetuate the erasure of the Muslim slave narrative. Integrating this history will not only mitigate racism and facilitate Muslim American cohesion, but also reveal the deep-rootedness of the faith, and its holiest month, on US soil.

This Ramadan honouring the memory of the first Muslim Americans and their struggle for freedom and sharing their story with loved ones at the iftar table, seems an ideal step towards rewriting this missing chapter of Muslim American history into our collective consciousness.

Khaled A Beydoun is the Critical Race Studies Teaching Fellow at the UCLA School of Law.

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  • Reynardine

    Now that I can upload pictures again, please accept this greeting :

  • mindy1

    Nur are you TRYING to give yourself heartburn??

  • Sam Seed

    I would say they have 😉

  • Tanveer ¯_(ツ)_/¯ Khan

    Good to hear from you too, Senor Sam. Is it just me or have these past two fasts been extremely easy?

  • Sam Seed

    Good to hear from you Master Khan. I wish you all prosperous Ramadan!

  • Iman

    Ramadan Mubarak . May Allah increase the number of Moslems in America and everywhere .

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  • Razainc_aka_BigBoss

    This is very true “Ramadan was widely observed by enslaved Muslims. Yet, this history is
    largely ignored by Muslim American leaders and laypeople alike – and
    erased from the modern Muslim American narrative”.

    Especially since the flawed concept of four waves of Muslims immigration completely ignores the history of enslaved Muslims.

    I think this narrative needs to be really included in the Muslims history of the Americas

  • Nur

    Wow, this was a very nice story. I lived in the US for a time, and practiced Islam in my home with my family. We did go to the local Masjid during Ramaden time, but missed the way in which I was used to.

    I lived in the Southwestern part of the US, and learned to make many TexMex and Mexican dishes. OK…yes, I still put peppers and hot sauce my FritoLay bag, and eat the mix with a spoon…mmm.

    This article gives me an idea for Eid, to share what I learned to cook in America with other people at the neighborhood celebrations.
    Ramaden Mubarak to you all. 🙂

  • John Smith

    Ramadan Kareem! Long month this year 😛

  • mindy1

    Happy Ramadan 😀 glad Disqus is back :)))

  • Tanveer ¯_(ツ)_/¯ Khan

    It is now, finally. XD

  • Sam Seed

    Hi is Disqus working?

  • mindy1

    Have a good Ramadan 😀

  • shaders

    MashAllah. What an honourable history, should be celebrated the world over. Ramadan Kareem from England. 🙂

  • Muslim slaves being brought to America is a fact that is not well known and publicized.

    Were many of them forced to convert out of Islam?

    But Islam has always been considered as the “other” religion by many non-Muslims.

    That said, I believe the Muslims have a much better chance to reform their religion, by challenging the orthodoxy, in America and other parts of the West than they do in Muslim majority countries, where one can be killed if one challenges the orthodoxy, as it happened to a provincial governer in Pakistan who was assassinated by his bodyguard for calling for a review of that country’s Blasphemy law, a murder that was sadly cheered by many religious people.

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